Transmission is via eating an intermediate host: frogs and lizards. It is larger than Opisthorchis spp. Liver fluke disease is a chronic parasitic disease of the bile ducts. Could this be liver fluke? It is at this point that a cat will eat the host (i.e., the lizard), becoming infected with the organism. On rare occasions, the parasite can block the cat's bile ducts, preventing the bile from entering the small intestine to aid in digestion. Snails ingest the eggs which undergo three development stages (sporocysts, rediae and cercariae), lizards or skinks become intermediate hosts when they ingest an infected snail, and cats become the final host when they ingest an infected lizard or skink. Back to top. Liver fluke disease is a chronic parasitic disease of the bile ducts. A liver fluke is a parasitic flatworm, commonly found in Southeast Asia. Supportive care includes intravenous fluids and force feeding (force feeding is the treatment of choice for cats with hepatic lipidosis), generally through a gastrotomy (stomach) tube for 2-3 months. Cats with liver disease may experience a neurological syndrome known as hepatic encephalopathy which is indicated by behaviors such as aimless wandering, circling, and head pressing. They infect the biliary tract, which is part of the liver and gallbladder that supports the flow of bile, and the pancreas. The veterinarian will need to know the cat's complete health history, what symptoms are present and when symptoms first began. It is impossible to spread it through contact or any other way that is to say even the people who have them may not realize that they are infected. The eggs are passed through the bile to the intestine where they are passed out in the dung. Host Association and … The liver fluke affects cattle, sheep goats, pigs, horses, hares and man. With prompt treatment, most cats recover completely from liver fluke infestation. The eggs are passed through the bile to the intestine where they are passed out in the dung. The veterinarian will monitor the cat's labs during fluid therapy to ensure they are being well-received by the cat's body. You will need to give a thorough history of your cat's health, onset of symptoms, and lifestyle behaviors, such as whether your cat is allowed outdoor access. The liver flukes Opisthorchis felineus (Rivolta, 1884), O. viverrini (Poirier, 1886), and Clonorchis sinensis (Loos, 1907) are the three epidemiologically significant species of the family Opisthorchiidae (class Trematoda, phylum Platyhelminthes), affecting the human and animal liver and bile ducts. If your cat eats a toad or lizard infected with fluke eggs, he himself will develop liver flukes. The veterinarian will prescribe a medication, such as fenbendazole or praziquantel, to kill the parasitic worms. Humans usually become infected with liver flukes after eating raw or undercooked freshwater fish and in … Liver Flukes. The small lizards that run all over in Florida – technically called anoles – are a perfect intermediate host for liver flukes. The cat will need to follow up with the veterinarian for the monitoring of liver enzyme levels. The cat liver fluke, also known as Opisthorchis felineus, is a trematode parasite that lives in water. These labs can help the veterinarian determine how the liver is functioning and rule out other conditions with similar symptoms. A related species, Clonorchis sinensis, the Oriental liver fluke of people, also has been found in the bile ducts and pancreatic ducts of dogs, cats, and other animals. Many cats infected with liver flukes show no signs, but signs can range from loss of … They infect the biliary tract, which is part of the liver and gallbladder that supports the flow of bile, and the pancreas. Jane Kelley is a LaTrobe University PhD student working on liver fluke control and management in the Victorian dairy industry. Cats become infected by eating raw sweet water fish in which metacercariae are encysted. Various stages of disease cause different clinical signs and are often associated with specific seasons of the year e.g. It was first discovered in 1884 in a cat's liver by Sebastiano Rivolta of Italy. Most cats with cat liver fluke present with no symptoms (asymptomatic). © 2020 Wag Labs, Inc. All rights reserved. infection in live cattle, a fecal sedimentation test to detect its egg is still the gold standard (Fig 2). ectioning of the liver at necropS - sy revealed numerous flukes within prominently thickened bile ducts (Fig. The second tumor type is labeled as hemolymphatic. Your veterinarian will want to examine your cat from time to time to check clinical signs such as liver enzymes and fecal sedimentation. They are a small parasite that is transmitted from one animal to another through lizards. The most common types of liver flukes are Clonorchis sinensis, Opisthorchis viverrini and Opisthorchis felineus. Liver fluke in humans happen by drinking water and consuming fish from places where liver flukes stay. My cat has not been very active, like his usual self, for almost a week now. The most common types of flukes are Clonorchis sinensis, Opisthorchis viverrini and Opisthorchis felineus. Cats who are dehydrated as a result of vomiting and diarrhea will need to be hospitalized in order to receive intravenous fluid therapy. Diagnosis. How Do I Know if My Cat Has Liver Failure? Clonorchis is a liver fluke parasite that humans can get by eating raw or undercooked fish, crabs, or crayfish from areas where the parasite is found. This can cause a variety of respiratory symptoms, such as a cough or breathing difficulty. 1. Very few scenarios have been reported especially in the US. Cats who live in tropical and subtropical areas and who live outdoors are most likely to contract the parasite. 2. They also have been found rarely in other organs or the brain. They have a complex life cycle that can involve multiple intermediate hosts. The typical patient is a young feral cat between the ages of 6 to 24 months with access to local wild life. These samples will be sent to the lab in order to look for the presence of the fluke. These eggs are then consumed by a snail, where the miracidia emerge from the eggs and enter the snail's intestine. A feline can become infected with one of these flukes by ingestion of the intermediate host, which can either be a variety of snail, crab, or crayfish. Platynosomum concinnum infection occurs in cats living in tropical areas such as Hawaii and Florida . The fluke makes its way into the biliary tract and liver, leading to a diseased state. Clorsulon and albendazole are effective in eliminating adult flukes in cattle. Sometimes a cat's fluke (Opistorchis felineus) is also called a cat liver or Siberian trematode, although chronic hepatobiliary damage (opisthorchiasis) caused by this helminth is a common infection of fish-eating mammals (including humans) from Eastern Europe to the Asia-Pacific region. Diagnosis using hepatic histopathology and/or bile analysis is ideal but not always practical … Outdoor cats and feral cats who hunt are more susceptible to contracting the fluke. The life cycle is cyclical, with the embryonated eggs passing from an infected cat through its feces. Life cycle of a liver fluke The adult parasites settle in the small bile ducts and can live there for 20 to 30 years. The mature daughter sporocysts emerge from the snail and are thereafter ingested by a second intermediate host, usually an anole lizard (but also skinks, geckos, frogs, and toads). Snails then eat the eggs, and may themselves be eaten by toads or lizards. You should also watch for signs such as loss of appetite, body condition and weight. Because it takes eight weeks for the parasite to mature and pass eggs, however, the cat could potentially become very ill by the time eggs are present in the feces. These tracts are responsible for producing bile which helps to detoxify your cat's blood and urine as well. Minor infections may pass unnoticed, but severe infections will often show signs of illness. Flukes need standing water to survive. These liver flukes require snails and sweet water fish as intermediary hosts. Some people may also notice hives, poor appetite, and unexplained weight loss when they have a liver fluke infection. The cat has remained clinically normal. The preventive measures and regular deworming strategy reduces the incidence of the disease mostly. Additional medications may also be prescribed. *Wag! The most common types of liver flukes are Clonorchis sinensis, Opisthorchis viverrini and Opisthorchis felineus. If you live in an endemic zone for Platynosomum concinnum or Opisthorchis felineus (southeastern USA, Caribbean Islands, South America, Pacific islands, and parts of Africa) it is possible that Toby became infected by eating a lizard; it is also possible that Toby got Salmonella from ingestion of a lizard or rodent. Flukes need standing water to survive. Diagnosis. Flukes (also called trematodes) are a class of parasites that can infect cats. Liver cancer manifests itself in cats in three types, all of which involve tumors that are found in the liver. The severity of symptoms depend on the severity of infection. Liver fluke disease is a chronic parasitic disease of the bile ducts. Regards Dr Callum Turner DVM. The veterinarian will confirm the diagnosis of cat liver fluke by taking a sample of the bile or liver tissue. Approximately 15 to 85 percent of cats with access to intermediate hosts are infected in endemic areas (areas in which this trematode parasite occurs naturally). Liver fluke in cattle is a leaf-like parasite residing in the liver and bile duct of infected animals. In places where lizards roam (like South Florida or Central and South America), cats who like a little reptilian snack now and then can get a parasite called a liver fluke that lodges and grows in the liver. Other animals, such as frogs, lizards or larger fish, eat the infected fish or snail, becoming the second intermediate host. Liver flukes infect the liver, gallbladder, and bile duct in humans. A cat liver fluke is a parasitic worm that infects the liver and pancreas of cats. The adult flukes Paragonimus kellicotti and Paragonimus westermani usually live in cysts or bulla, primarily in the lungs of cats. Liver flukes affect gain in young cattle, but this is usually a slow-developing problem compared to the effect of worms,” Hawkins says. These can lead to inflammation, bacterial infections, abscesses and other disruptions of … Typically, the parasite is ingested by a lizard, frog, or fish. “Liver damage affects everything the body needs to do in converting nutrients into utilizable proteins, energy, vitamins, etc. However, most infested cats remain asymptomatic. It takes approximately eight weeks for the parasite to mature and shed eggs, which then pass into the cat's feces, perpetuating the cycle. o diagnose T. F. hepatica. Adults live in the bile ducts of the liver where they mate and lay eggs. Liver Flukes ( Opisthorchis viverrini , Clonorchis sinensis ) Opisthorchis viverrini and Clonorchis sinensis are trematodes of fish-eating mammals including dogs, cats and humans in Asia. The eggs from the adult flukes, are coughed up, swallowed, and passed in the feces. The most common types of liver flukes are Clonorchis sinensis, Opisthorchis viverrini and Opisthorchis felineus. The veterinarian may also take a stool sample in order to look for fluke eggs in the feces. He picks a spot on the couch and seems to lay there most of the day. Hepatic trematode infection has been diagnosed in kittens as young as 4 months of age. These tumors actually spread to the liver from other parts of the body. Lung flukes are a type of parasitic worm that infects the respiratory tract of cats. Most cats … Infection with liver flukes in endemic regions can cause acute and chronic cholangitis in cats and less frequently in dogs. Cats usually get flukes by eating small animals, such as toads or lizards, that are infected with the parasite. Water was provided ad libitum and each cat had about 100 g of Purina cat chow (Centre Agricole St. Clet, St. Clet, County Soulanges, P.Q.) However, a cat with a more severe infection will display certain characteristic symptoms. Metorchis in Cats 119 Materials and Methods Male and female mixed-breed cats weighing 1.0 to 3.5 kg were treated with piperazine to expel Toxocara cati and then housed in cages with a mesh bottom and a plate to rest on. Prevalence has been reported at 15-85% in tropical and subtropical environments. The have a pink-grayish to dark red color. Vitamin D may be given to the cat intravenously to help promote healing. Discussion. … It is estimated that 15 to 85 percent of cats who live in infested areas have contracted the parasite at some point in their lives. Platynosomum concinnum is found in Malaysia, Hawaii, West Africa, South America, the Caribbean, and areas... Clinical signs. The most common types of liver flukes are Clonorchis sinensis, Opisthorchis viverrini and Opisthorchis felineus. They don’t harm the lizards in whose bodies they reside, but when your cat friend snacks on an affected lizard, that parasite can move into her bile duct and cause a potentially fatal inflammation. Infection with liver flukes in endemic regions can cause acute and chronic cholangitis in cats and less frequently in dogs. Humans usually become infected with liver flukes after eating raw or undercooked freshwater fish and in some cases watercress. In 1891, Russian parasitologist, Konstantin Nikolaevich Vinogradov (1847–1906) found it in … Changes may include weight loss, jaundice, ascites, liver … About 40% of cats carry the bacteria at some time in their lives, although kittens younger than 1 year of age are more likely to have it. Liver flukes are types of worms which affect the biliary tracts of your cat. Adult liver flukes have a flat body, an oval shape, and are rather large: up to 30 mm long and 15 mm wide. Otherwise, your cat may display one or more of the following symptoms: 1. Your risk of infection increases if you travel to parts of the world where the parasites are widespread. Flukes spread when infected cats pass their eggs in feces. Hepatic failure, or acute liver failure in cats, is a condition characterized by the sudden loss of 70 percent or more of the liver’s function. Risk factors for infection are living in a tropical or subtropical climate in which the appropriate intermediate hosts reside, access to an outdoor or indoor/outdoor environment, successful hunting skills, and consumption of an infected intermediate host. Infection takes place when the Cercariae are released in the upper digestive tract of the cat and they migrate to the bile ducts (ducts of the liver) and gallbladder, where they mature and shed eggs within eight weeks. Liver fluke in cats is most common in tropical areas such as Hawaii, Florida, and most of Central America. It hitches a ride with an intermediate host, typically the land snail, which is then ingested by another intermediate host, such as the lizard and frog. This feeding tube will be placed through the cat's nose or via a small incision in the esophagus. Platynosomum fastosum(Syn Platynosomum concinnum) is a feline-specific liver fluke that resides in hepatic bile ducts and the gallbladder. Infestation is acquired by ingesting an infected intermediate host, usually a lizard or frog; ~15%–85% of cats with access to intermediate hosts are infected in endemic … Treatment with praziquantel is the treatment of choice for the flukes (although not licensed for treatment) and antibiotics should be given to prevent any secondary infection or infection from Salmonella if that is the cause. The parasite can also affect other species including horses and even humans. Liver flukes have no external signs of segmentation. Liver fluke infections aren’t common in the United States, but they do occur. In most patients that have been given appropriate treatment in time, before severe damage may have occurred to the liver or gallbladder, an uncomplicated recovery is expected. A feline can become infected with one of these flukes by ingestion of the intermediate host, which can either be a variety of snail, crab, or crayfish. Cats with liver flukes will show vomiting, a loss of appetite, and an intermittent fever. Pancreatic and liver flukes are caused by the trematodes (worms) A liver fluke infection, which is an infection of parasitic worms called flukes, can cause a range of unpleasant symptoms. Liver flukes have two suckers, both in the ventral side. Liver fluke, known as Fasciola hepatica, is a flattened ovoid shaped parasite that, as its name suggests, colonises the liver of various species most notably ruminants. 1). The liver fluke affects cattle, sheep goats, pigs, horses, hares and man. If the cat is unable to eat, a feeding tube may be inserted directly into the cat's intestines. Liver fluke infestation in cats occurs when the Opisthorchis felineus, or cat liver fluke, infects the cat from a secondary host. Liver fluke disease is a chronic parasitic disease of the bile ducts. Transmission is via eating an intermediate host: frogs and lizards. The veterinarian may also place the cat on an antibiotic in order to prevent infections from occurring. Among the most common are abdominal pain, nausea, vomiting, and diarrhea.A person with this condition may also develop a fever and generally feel unwell. ... Liver flukes; Lymphocytic Portal Hepatitis. Pancreatic and liver flukes are worms or parasites that infect domestic cats. In this case, surgery may be necessary to clear the bile ducts. The most common fluke infecting cats is Platynosomum concinnum in Florida, Hawaii, and other tropical areas. Diarrhea / Fever / Jaundice / Poor Appetite / Vomiting / Weight Loss. The ‘shunt’ is a blood vessel that bypasses the liver, which is present in the fetus but is supposed to shut down after the kitten is born. Upon ingesting (or nibbling on) a frog or lizard, flukes make their way into a feline’s biliary tract, liver, and or gallbladder. As a result, turning to comple… The most common liver fluke in cats in North America is Platynosomum concinnum. In order to diagnose this condition, a veterinarian must start with a thorough physical exam. Liver Fluke Liver fluke eggs can sometimes be found in the feces or by bile cytology. Infection with this parasite occurs through eating fluke-infested, fresh-water raw or undercooked fish. The operculated eggs of these parasites may be identified in the feces of infected animals. “Any … If your cat is severely ill, it will need to be hospitalized so that it can be fed and hydrated intravenously, as well as medicated with drugs that will clear the body of the liver fluke parasite. Introduction. Feline liver flukes are treated with praziquantel at 20 mg/kg once daily for 3 consecutive days. There are several types of flukes that have been found in the liver of cats around the world. The prevalence of liver fluke infestation in cats varies worldwide and clinical manifestations are uncommonly reported. This disease is differentiated from others that might have similar symptoms by taking fluid and tissue samples from the liver or bile for laboratory analysis. Geckos, skinks and toads carry parasites called liver flukes that are potentially deadly for cats. 7 Common Causes of Liver Disease in Cats #1: Liver Shunts. A visit to your vet is necessary to diagnose liver failure. Liver flukes Adult flukes deposit mature eggs in the feces, which pass out of the body of the host and into the environment. Sometimes a cat's fluke (Opistorchis felineus) is also called a cat liver or Siberian trematode, although chronic hepatobiliary damage (opisthorchiasis) caused by this helminth is a common infection of fish-eating mammals (including humans) from Eastern Europe to … Unfortunately, no treatment currently exists for liver disease in dogs and cats, unless a specific toxin is identified. The cat liver fluke, known more properly as Opisthorchis felineus, is a dangerous parasite that lives in water and can be transmitted to cats by way of a secondary host. You veterinarian may suggest antibiotics and/or corticosteroids for infectious conditions such as feline cholangiohepatitis, but conventional medicine is limited for liver disease. “The biggest concern for Australian beef producers is that liver fluke can cause excessive weight loss by as much as 20% per head depending on the number of flukes and the nutritional status of the animal,” she reveals. Hemolymphatic tumors arrive in the liver from blood and l… The cat liver fluke, also known as Opisthorchis felineus, is a trematode parasite that lives in water. Liver flukes live in water. Pancreatic and liver flukes are caused by the trematodes (worms) There are several types of intestinal, liver, and pancreatic flukes that can infect cats (see Table: Types of Flukes that Infect Cats); however, infection of cats is uncommon in the US. Infection with this parasite occurs through eating fluke-infested, fresh-water raw or undercooked fish. Cat-scratch disease is a bacterial disease that people may get after being bitten or scratched by a cat. They are indirect (food-borne) zoonoses. Liver Flukes Platynosomum concinnum infection occurs in cats living in tropical areas such as Hawaii and Florida. The cat liver fluke is a hepatic fluke, which means it affects the bile duct, small intestines, pancreatic duct and liver. Infection with this parasite occurs through eating fluke-infested, fresh-water raw or undercooked fish. Adults live in the bile ducts of the liver where they mate and lay eggs. The most common types of flukes are Clonorchis sinensis, Opisthorchis viverrini and Opisthorchis felineus. Lung flukes are parasites that come from crayfish and live in cats for part of their life cycle. Infection is most common in China, southeast Asia, and North America. If so what can I do for him? Without treatment, liver fluke can be fatal. Our yard is a frog “hang-out” and Chloe loves to hunt these hopping critters. The veterinarian will run routine labs, such as a biochemical profile, complete blood count, and a urinalysis. SAM e and milk thistle are also used as liver support drugs. Most common in cats that are allowed to hunt. Liver flukes are found in the liver of cats and wild carnivores in the Southeast U.S. [ … The infected feces is then ingested by the first intermediate host, a land snail. I think he may have eaten a lizard or rodent the other day, as I found blood in the garage where he was for the afternoon. Found across parts of Asia, Clonorchis is also known as the Chinese or oriental liver fluke. Antibiotics may be required for preventing opportunistic infections, prednisone can be given for lessening the severity of inflammation, and anthelmintic (drugs that kill parasitic worms) substances, such as praziquantel, can be given to kill the trematode spores, either intravenously, or by mouth if your cat is being treated on an outpatient basis. What is Liver Failure in Cats? History, physical examination, laboratory testing, and abdominal ultrasound support a diagnosis. Liver flukes are digenean trematodes that can infect a wide range of definitive hosts, including cats. Infection with this parasite occurs through eating fluke-infested, fresh-water raw or undercooked fish. Liver fluke infection occurs most in cats in Florida, Hawaii, and other tropical and subtropical areas. The parasite lives in warm, freshwater lakes and rivers in subtropical areas, such as Hawaii, Florida, Central America, parts of Asia, Italy and eastern Europe. It hitches a ride with an intermediate host, typically the land snail, which is then ingested by another intermediate host, such as the lizard and frog. The first type of tumor is called the metastatic tumor. Liver fluke, known as Fasciola hepatica, is a flattened ovoid shaped parasite that, as its name suggests, colonises the liver of various species most notably ruminants.The parasite can also affect other species including horses and even humans. To the Editor: Fishborne zoonotic trematodes are highly prevalent in many Asian communities (1,2).Although presence of the liver fluke Clonorchis sinensis is well documented in Vietnam (), evidence of the presence of the more common liver fluke of Southeast Asia, Opisthorchis viverrini, is only circumstantial. Other species of flukes that may infect cats include Amphimerus pseudofelineus, Opisthorchis tenuicollis, Metorchis albidus, and Metorchis conjunctus. Lymphocytic cholangitis, suspected to be immune-mediated, can have a prolonged clinical course with weight loss and ascites as the predominant features. The primary host of the parasite is cattle, and other susceptible hosts are … Young liver flukes migrate from the small intestines to the liver via the bile ducts and cause inflammation of the common bile duct and the large extra- and intrahepatic bile ducts. In kittens and young cats, liver shunts top the list of common causes of liver malfunction. It is characterized by the reduced growth rate, reduced production, reduced milk production, malnutrition, and death. Medication to prevent infestation may be required for outdoor cats every three months in endemic, tropical climates. For nonsuppurative cholangiohepatitis in the cat, prednisone is recommended at a daily dose 2.2 mg/kg for 1-2 weeks and then slowly tapered to an alternate day regimen over a 4-6 week period. Outdoor cats and feral cats who hunt are more susceptible to contracting the fluke. Items are sold by the retailer, not Wag!. The body surface is covered with numerous spines. When the cat eats the second intermediate host, it becomes infected with the parasite. A recent study assessing the use of percutaneous ultrasound-guided cholecystocentesis in cats known to be infected with Platynosomum species flukes found the technique to be technically feasible and safe in cats … If left undiagnosed like it … It can also be definitively diagnosed from a microscopic examination of biopsied liver tissue, as well as by discovery of eggs in the feces. In order to properly treat the liver fluke infection, you must not only deal with the living worms in the biliary tracts, but also with their eggs and any larvae which may develop into flukes. This diseased state may be due to sudden, massive liver tissue death. Opisthorchis felineus, or cat liver fluke is a trematode parasite that infects the liver in mammals. The larvae, now know as cercariae, are released from the snail, and they are consumed by a larger fish, frog or lizard. Cats who are being treated an outpatient basis will receive an oral medication. Cholangitis is common in felines, including neutrophilic, lymphocytic, and chronic cholangitis (liver fluke). Pancreatic and Liver Flukes in Cats Pancreatic and liver flukes are worms or parasites that infect domestic cats. The International Agency for Research on Cancer classified the liver flukes O. viverrini and C. sinensis as group 1 agents, i.e., the agents carcinogenic to humans,1 and as the major factors inducing cholangioc… Cat liver fluke is often suspected with cats who live in areas where the fluke dwells, are allowed to go outdoors, and present with typical symptoms. Liver flukes Adult flukes deposit mature eggs in the feces, which pass out of the body of the host and into the environment. Otherwise, your cat may display one or more of the following symptoms: The life cycle of O. felineus requires two intermediate hosts living in a tropical or subtropical climate. They then enter the second host's bile ducts, where they reside until the host is ingested by a cat. The larvae hatch in the snail, penetrating the host's tissue and developing sporocysts, a sac like larval stage. Up to 85 percent of cats living in tropical areas are infected with liver fluke. It is commonly found in tropical and subtropical regions of the world (eg, southern USA, South America). Today, his temperature became hotter than usual, and he was even a little sweaty. Liver Flukes. Because liver fluke can cause carcinomas in the liver or pancreas, it is important to watch for symptoms of these conditions, such as loss of appetite, weight loss, and jaundice. The small parasite typically first infests cyprinid fishes and snails. Symptoms of Liver Fluke Infestation in Cats Most infected cats are asymptomatic, meaning they typically don’t display any symptoms. They are ingested by lizards and frogs. Liver flukes in cattle is a deadly disease of animals that seriously hamper the production and performance of your farm. When cats become heavily infected, however, they may display the following symptoms: Liver fluke infestation is caused when an infected cat passes feces that contains the embryonated eggs that have fully-developed miracidium, or larvae. When an outdoor cat hunts and eats these animals, the cercariae enter and dwell in the upper digestive tract and bile ducts. Once the parasite is inside a cat's body, a fluke develops in the cat's lungs. A liver fluke is a parasitic flatworm, commonly found in Southeast Asia. Flukes (also called trematodes) are a class of parasites that can infect cats. The cat liver fluke is a hepatic fluke, which means it affects the bile duct, small intestines, pancreatic duct and liver. Many cats infected with liver flukes show no signs, but signs can range from loss of … It stands to reason that feline infections are common in geographical areas that support snail, crab or crayfish dietary needs. Liver Flukes Distribution. For very ill cats, vitamin D will be administered through the intravenous fluid to promote recovery. daily; feces were examined for ova with However, most infested cats remain asymptomatic. There are two main varieties of lung flukes to infect felines, Paraonimus westermani and Paragonimus kellicotti. This name is derived from "hemo" (blood) and "lymphatic" (indicates the lymph system). Without treatment, liver fluke can be fatal. If the cat is hospitalized, this medication will be given intravenously.