variation of the results of lotion A without any additives and lotion B were perfume, colour and preservatives where added except for the pH. A. kernels. The authors declare no conflicts of interest. Correlation analysis revealed that the levels of crude protein, ash, moisture, and lipid were negatively affected by phytate, tannins, and oxalate. The B. aegyptiaca was extracted and its chemical, morphology, and physical properties were characterized. − B You can request the full-text of this chapter directly from the authors on ResearchGate. Free caustic alkali was calculated as follows; 5 g of each sample was accurately weighed using analytical balance (sensitivity 0.1 mg) into dried, tarred moisture dish and dried in an oven (Memmert, Germany) for 2 hours at 110˚C and repeated until a constant weight (difference between two measurements not exceeding 0.5 mg/g of sample) was reached. The specific gravity of the oil was determined by conventional method. Grasas y Aceites, 37(2):81-85. 28.2 The effect of thermal processing (roasting and boiling) on the nutritional, antinutritional, and antioxidant properties of African walnut was studied. The qualities of the produced biodiesel well meet the international biodiesel standards. Peroxide value is used as a measure of the extent to which rancidity reactions have occurred during storage it could be used as an indication of the quality and stability of fats and oils. The injector and detector temperatures were fixed at 250˚C. Cooking treatments decreased the concentrations of lysine, tryptophan, total aromatic and sulfur-containing amino acids. The oxirane content for It is traditionally used in the treatment of various ailments, such as jaundice, intestinal worm infection, wounds, malaria, syphilis, epilepsy, dysentery, constipation, diarrhea, hemorrhoid, stomach aches, asthma, and fever. In addition to the target compounds, plastochromanol-8 could be determined in all plant-based samples with contents ranging from 0.13 (walnut oil) to 18 mg/100 g (linseed oil). The soap solution 10% was prepared and transferred into a blender and agitated for 10 seconds at medium speed. This work and the related PDF file are licensed under a Creative Commons Attribution 4.0 International License. The research was conducted to determine the Extraction Yield, Extraction Efficiency and Extraction Loss associated with the traditional Hot Water Floatation method of oil extraction. The solvent extraction was done using soxhlets apparatus and petroleum ether as the solvent. ( An equivalent quantity of oil was replaced with the water in the same bottle and weighed as GC-MS incorporated with an auto sampler and Real Time Analysis software system was used for analyzing FAME. The oil is consisted on four major fatty acids: palmitic (16:0), stearic (18:0), oleic (18:1), and linoleic (18:2), constituting 98-100% of the total fatty acids in the oil of all tested genotypes. a Physicochemical analysis of the soap. Calculation of the composition from ultraviolet absorption measurements gave 10 g of finished soap was weighed and 150 mL distilled water was added and heated. The moisture content was determined according to . Balanites AegyptiAca, NOrthern UGANDA Our cold pressed Desert Date oil From the Balanites Aegyptiaca tree is one of the most decadent oils for the skin. HPLC Separation of Tocopherols and Tocotrienols Balanites aegyptiaca L. (Balanitaceae) is a woody plant that grows in diverse ecological conditions, from places with annual rainfall of 100 to 1000 mm to semi-arid and arid areas around tropical Africa . The presence of other antioxidants in the oils, e.g. It also had antimicrobial activity against selected strains of Gram-positive bacteria, Gram-negative bacteria and Candida. Desert date (Balanite aegyptiaca) seeds oil (Zygophyllaceae), known as “desert date,” is spiny shrub or tree up to l0 m tall, widely distributed in dry land areas of Africa and South Asia. International Islamic University Malaysia, Extraction Yield, Efficiency And Loss Of The Traditional Hot Water Floatation (HWF) Method Of Oil Extraction From The Seeds Of Allanblackia Floribunda, Effect of Thermal Processing on the Nutritional, Antinutritional, and Antioxidant Properties of Tetracarpidium conophorum (African Walnut), Effects of Processing (Boiling and Roasting) on the Nutritional and Antinutritional Properties of Bambara Groundnuts (Vigna subterranea [L.] Verdc.) 1 Methods employed included determination of fatty acid composition, iodine value (IV), peroxide value (PV), conjugated dienes (CD), para-ansidine value (p-AV) and 2-thiobarbituric acid (TBA) value. analysis had a significant relationship (R 9 Nigerian Journal of Chemical Research Vol. The products both neat and one with additives were exposed to sunlight for 8 hours and the analysis for any change in colour, odour, pH, viscosity, texture and signs of separation were carried out. The saponification value (SV) was calculated as; S The levels of total tocopherols when combined with the level of unsaturation in the oil in a multiple regression Chemical & Petroleum Techniques, Department of Science Laboratory Technology, University of Jos, Jos, Nigeria, Department of Chemistry, Abubakar Tafawa Balewa University, Bauchi, Nigeria, Creative Commons Attribution 4.0 International License. While the solution was still hot, it was then titrated with 0.5 M HCl using phenolphthalein indicator to a colourless end point. A It was then placed in the oven at 105˚C for 24 hrs. 100 The fatty acid composition of the seed oil is similar to the values reported by . % Effect of Temperature on Lotion Stability. The acid value was low (2.14 ± 0.28 mg KOH/g) and this shows that this oil is stable . The moisture, carbohydrate and fibre contents decreased because of roasting and boiling treatments while fat and protein contents increased. w process of B. aegyptiaca oil transeteriﬁcation for biodiesel production [19,20] and studied the use of B. aegyptiaca as a fuel for diesel engines [21–23] showed that B. aegyptiaca biodiesel can be used in a diesel engine as an To read the full-text of this research, you can request a copy directly from the authors. Blending was continued until mixture thickens, addition of other additives followed as desired when the temperature of the mixture was about 50˚C or below. Some of these fatty acids have longer carbon chains than others and exist as saturated, mono-unsaturated or polyunsaturated fatty acids. N 0.05 B. aegyptiaca is also The aim of this study was to assess the suitability of Desert date (Balanites aegyptiaca L. Delile) as an oil crop in arid lands for large-scale sustainable industrial biodiesel production. 0 The pH of the soap was determined to be between 8.27 ± 0.05 to 8.37 ± 0.1 which places the soap as a moderately basic soap. The chief importance of vegetable oils lies in their food value . Die jeweils vier Tocopherole (T) und Tocotrienole (T3) sowie Plastochromanol-8 (P-8) und BHA wurden bei der HPLC an einer Diol-Säule durch Elution mit n-Hexan/tert-Butylmethylether (96 + 4, v/v) vollständig voneinander getrennt. F Using an expeller at 115 degrees C, about 85% of the kernel oil was recovered. The cosmetic industry remains under immense consumer pressure to produce innovative products for this lucrative industry. × Furthermore, discerning consumers of cosmetic products are nowadays informing themselves of the validity of scientific claims made on various products. V The seed kernel is considered as an extremely useful edible product, it is rich in oil, protein, minerals and it has been reported to be used for over thousands of years . M The acid value of Balanites aegyptiaca seed kernel oil was 2.14 ± 0.28 mg KOH/g while free fatty acids value was 0.82 ± 0.01 mg KOH/g. γ-Tocopherol dominated the profile while α-tocopherol was only 6% of the The three molecules of fatty acids in the triglyceride gets attached to a single molecule of glycerol and results in a chemical reaction termed saponification . 学名 : Balanites aegyptiaca (L.) Delile, 1812（ハマビシ科） INCI : BALANITES AEGYPTIACA KERNEL OIL 種子 スーダン、西アフリカ、ナイジェリア 医薬品、化粧品、食用 スキンコンディショニング It is endemic to dry land areas. The lotions, experimental and control were placed in the refrigerator at −10˚C for 24 hours for the minimum temperature. oil exhibited anticancer activity against lung, liver and brain human carcinoma cell lines. Balanites aegyptiaca Balanitaceae (L.) Del. Characterization of the Desert date plant material showed that using proper cultivation practices with emphasis on low quality irrigation water trees can be extremely well developed in hyper-arid conditions of the Israeli Arava desert and yield oil-rich fruits. W. The total alkali was determined by titrating excess acid contained in the aqueous phase with standard volumetric NaOH solution . × Regarding the FA composition The oils contained 67.2, 46.5 and 40.9% oleic acid, 5.9, 3.4 and 34.5% linoleic acid, 14.1, 44.2 and 12.1% palmitic acid and traces of linolenic acid, respectively. (2018) Application of Desert Date (. Oils are heterogeneous biochemical substances which have in common, the property of being soluble in most organic polar solvents (chloroform, benzene, diethyl ether, etc.) Determination of Fatty Acid, C, H, N and Trace Element Composition in Grape … It is traditionally used in treatment of various ailments i.e. Note: LE―light exposure, CI―creaming index. Balanites aegyptiaca seed kernel oil falls in the group of such oils termed as vegetable oils since it is extracted from a plant source. − Physico-chemical characterization and extraction of oil from balanites aegyptiaca plant (seed).World Journal of Pharmaceutical Research, 4(11): 1723-1732. 2013. tifs.2016.03.014, Animal and Vegetable Fats and OilsPreparation of Methyl Esters of Fatty Acids. w × Moisture = The protein, fat, and ash contents of the samples on dry basis were 29.14%, 54.14%, and 3.32% (RAAW); 24.13%, 61.75%, and 2.77% (BWIS); 22.47%, 62.65%, and 2.16% (BWOS); and 24.25%, 60.52%, and 2.48% (RWIS), respectively. Sesame oil was prepared from raw and processed seeds. − The soap and body lotion formulated from the oil of these seeds has good property and therefore can be applicable in the soap and cosmetic industry. Int. 18:2 content ranged from 57.0 to 62.5% and the 18:3 contents ranged from 10.7 to 16.2%. Suitable … = weight of density bottle filled with water (g). The moisture content of 11.85% recorded for the soap is within the. Animal and vegetable fats and oils. The specific density of the oil was determined as follows; Specificdensity Vegetable oils are now available with improved levels of vitamin E and phytosterols (Sterols derived from plants). The seed oil is stable and similar to the palm oil and it can also be a sustainable alternative to palm oil in food industries. The B. aegyptiaca contain a biological active component that can use in its nutraceutical applications. Balanites Aegyptiaca is one of the non-edible oils having better suitable properties with reference to their utilization as biolubricant. Summary Lalob fruit from the Sudan has been examined by modern chemical and physical methods. Roasting did not alter the fatty acid composition or the tocopherol content of the oils. It was allowed to cool and then titrated against 0.1 M ethanolic KOH using phenolphthalein indicator until a pink colour which lasted for at least 30 seconds was observed. 50 mL of the oil sample was placed in a beaker, neutralized methylated spirit (0.1 M NaOH was added to methylated spirit to a pink colour and then heated) was added to the oil sample and heated on a hot plate for 1.0 min. The composition of the fatty acid content of the seed kernel oil of Balanites aegyptiaca is shown in Table 3. Technol. W. 28.2 = conversion factor in relation to oleic acid. Gamma-tocopherol was the predominant tocopherol in the oil of S. birrea and A. pubescens. Allanblackia floribunda, a tree species of the Guttiferae family grows naturally in tropical rainforests zones. The results showed remarkable biological activity of Balanites aegyptiaca fixed oil and proved its importance as natural bioactive source. While magnesium, potassium, and phosphorus were the most abundant macrominerals in V. subterranea, zinc was the most abundant micromineral. A good test method to predict creaming is centrifugation. The lotion was formulated according to the method prescribed by . It does neither suggest that the species can ( The mixture was placed on the hot plate and heated to 120˚C holding for 15 minutes. < In addition, nuclear magnetic resonance (NMR) spectroscopy was used to evaluate the extent of oxidation of sesame oils by measuring the relative changes of aliphatic to olefinic (Rao) and aliphatic to diallylmethylene (Rad) protons of the oils. Balanites aegyptiaca seed kernel oil falls in the group of such oils termed as vegetable oils since it is extracted from a plant source. All rights reserved. S Higher Iodine value indicates higher unsaturation of fats and oils. C FH-330 varieties, respectively. The quality assessment of the soap formulated from the seed kernel oil of Balanites aegyptiaca are shown in Table 4. = Two U.S. commercial cultivars (Tehama and Vina), three European commercial cultivars (Esterhazy, Balanites aegyptiaca, deep rooted arid zone tree has a very wide natural range. Official methods The losses in minerals in lentils cooked by microwaving were smaller than those cooked by boiling and autoclaving. Fats are chiefly made up of saturated fatty acids while oils are chiefly made up of unsaturated fatty acids. The chief importance of vegetable oils lies in their food value 3]. × The four tocopherols (T) and four tocotrienols (T3) as well as plastochromanol-8 (P-8) and BHA were separated completely by eluting them from a HPLC diol-column with n-hexane/methyl tert-butylether (96 : 4, v/v). A gradual increase in the (Rao) and (Rad) values was observed during the entire storage period. It is hardy to zone (UK) 10. Balanites aegyptiacus is an important species in dry areas in Africa. Sapogenin contents of the full fat, defatted and testa flours were 1.5, 2.7 and 3.0%, respectively. Acid value was determined to quantify the fatty acid found in the oil as it measures the free fatty acids of oil. In book: Unconventional Oilseeds and Oil Sources (pp.157-166). The lotion was heated to 50˚C and centrifuged for thirty minutes at 3000 rpm. Totalalkali The effects of microwave cooking and other traditional cooking methods such as boiling and autoclaving on the nutritional composition and anti-nutritional factors of lentils were studied. In addition to the oil content, the fatty acid as well as sterol composition was determined by capillary gas chromatography and the tocopherols were evaluated by high-performance liquid chromatography. v With increasing temperature up to 70 degrees C at 400 bar, for 120 min, an oil recovery of 79.4% was obtained. At this point, a few drops of starch indicator solution were added and titrated against standard 0.1N Sodium thiosulphate to a blue end point. C In this formulation, 80 g of water was transferred into a beaker. The largest vegetable oil sources are the oil seed crops of soya bean, rape seed, sun flower and cotton seed. ResearchGate has not been able to resolve any citations for this publication. The observed low moisture content serve as an indication that the activities of the micro-organisms would be reduced and thereby increases the shelf life of Balanites aegyptiaca seed . Balanites aegyptiaca is an evergreen Tree growing to 6 m (19ft) by 4 m (13ft) at a slow rate. Best sources of α-tocopherol were wheat germ (192 mg/100 g) and sunflower oil (59 mg/100 g). The %FFA is calculated as follows; % The kernels which amount to 9 to 10% Kenaf Seed Oil: A Potential New Source of Edible Oil: Review, Cheng W-Y, Akanda JMdH, Nyam K-L. 2016. carotenoids, phenolic compounds, and Maillard reaction products, may synergize with tocopherols and minimize this loss of efficacy. The refractive index of the oil sample was also determined according to the method prescribed . The effects of roasting and boiling with regard to loss and retention of the nutrients differed significantly (P > 0.05), with only the roasting retaining more of the nutrients than boiling. There was no significant. ) The density bottle was first filled with water, weighed and recorded, × V The stem of the tree contains steroidal Reduced stability of the oil as measured The recommended value is 0.25% for laundry soap and 0.2% for toilet soap . a The pH of the 10% soap solution was determined using a pH meter. Walnuts (Juglans regia L.) were collected during the 1997 harvest from 13 different cultivars of trees grown in a replicated trial in an experimental Plant sterol contents ranged from 69 mg/100 g in a frying fat to 4240 mg/100 g in wheat germ oil. 56.10 Oil, used for frying, is extracted from the kernels. The plant may be grown for its fiber, oil and/or for medicinal values. The invention provides methods for production of biodiesel from Balanites aegyptiaca oil or crushed nuts, and further relates to the biodiesel obtained. v w 1 2.3.3. Birds may also take shelter in its branches - Balanites aegyptiaca provides endangered, migratory landbirds a place to rest and feed over their journey. A Potential New Source of Edible Oil: Review. Among the vegetable oils, corn and rapeseed contain the highest amounts of phytosterols . Linoleic acid was the most prevalent fatty acid, ranging from 31% to 51% of the fatty acids profile, very similar to soybean oil profile. 15 min of roasting, the amount of α-tocopherol homologs was still over 76 and 81% of the original levels for the KL-39 and Based on these results, microwave cooking is recommended for lentil preparation, not only for improving nutritional quality, but also for reducing cooking time. Oxidative stability of the resultant hexane-extracted oils was determined during storage under Schaal oven test conditions at 65C for up to 35 days. jaundice, intestinal worm infection, wounds, malaria, syphilis, epilepsy, dysentery, constipation, diarrhea, hemorrhoid, stomach aches, asthma, and fever. The tree is valued for its fruits and seeds. w University OF JEDDH (KSA), Ghibaish College of Science & Technology GCST, Ghibaish Sudan. = The flask was connected with an air condenser and boiled for 1 hour until all the fat was completely saponified. B A low peroxide value as seen in our study increases the suitability of the oil for a long storage due to low level of oxidative and lipolytic activities . × In addition, the British Industrial Standard (BIS) norms reveal that such soaps can be categorized as Grade III Soap and are used for general bathing purpose. Organic rapeseed oil, the second best source of plant sterols, contained 887 mg/100 g. The variations of the total tocol and sterol contents in 10 rapeseed oil sub-samples analysed separately were 9.7% for tocols and 9.9% for sterols in refined rapeseed oil, and 6.3% for tocols and 4.2% for sterols, respectively, in cold-pressed rapeseed oil. The oil sample was spotted onto the slide of the refractometer and viewed by rotating the knobs while the refractive index was recorded. 15 min. They are formulated not as medicines but simply to smoothen, moisturize and soften the skin. Oils having iodine value below 100 are non-drying, those having values between 100 - 130 are semi-drying while those having values above 130 are termed drying oils . The tocopherol and tocotrienol (i.e. PubMed:Physical, morphological and chemical characteristics, oil recovery and fatty acid composition of Balanites Hale, S. and Belgin, B. Balanites aegyptiaca Del. The oil contained 54.53% unsaturated fatty acids and 1.14% sterols. Fresh new shoots may be Keyword; Balanites aegyptiaca, Kernels, oil yield, physiochemical properties Oil Yield and Physiochemical Properties of balanites aegyp-tiaca (l.) del. Phytochemicals and antioxidant activity of fruits of 30 B. aegyptiaca trees naturally growing in the hyper-arid and arid zones in Mauritania were evaluated by following standard procedures. W The method employed is the oldest, cheapest and most practiced in the study location. 1000 Balanites aegyptiaca Del. antimutagenicity, antiparasitic, antiviral and antimicrobial activities) was RESULTS: The oil contained 54.53% unsaturated fatty acids and 1.14% sterols. The peroxide value was calculated by; P The time for the rubber stopper to pass between two points (100 and 80 mL) was measured. The milled seed kernel (200 g) was packed in the thimble; 250 ml of petroleum ether (boiling point 60˚C - 80˚C) was transferred into a 500 ml round bottom flask which was place on a heating mantle and temperature maintained at 80˚C. Studies on the potential of Balanites aegyptiaca seed oil as raw material for the = weight of crucible + sample after heating. to the roasting. V Even for the β- and γ-tocopherol and -tocotrienol isomers, baseline separation was achieved. s The rate at which the stopper falls was dependent on the upward pressure and this upward pressure is inversely proportional to the size of the bubbles. = It, Access scientific knowledge from anywhere. 1 V Zang, C. , Jock, A. , Garba, H. and Chindo, Y. Canola (Brassica napus) is the primary oilseed crop currently grown in Australia. − For maximum temperature, the product was placed in the oven at 45˚C for 24 hours, removed and also kept at room temperature for 24 hours then analyzed for colour, odour, PH, viscosity, texture and signs of separation. × The plant may be grown for its fiber, oil and for medicinal values; it is also used in treatment of several diseases and disorders since ages. Soaps are therefore called the salts of fatty acids which are usually used as surfactants for washing, bathing and cleaning . W. a = Volume (mL) of Sodium thiosulphate used for blank. V X The acid value and % FFA of Balanites aegyptiaca seed kernel oil are lower than FAO/WHO standard for edible oils . 100/1000 = Multiplication factor as define for iodine value. The total fatty matter (TFM) of soap is a measure of its suitability for bathing or launderings purpose. P × The beaker containing distilled water was placed on a separate hot plate and heated to 100˚C holding for 13 minutes. Although many different parts of plants may yield oil, in commercial practice, oil is extracted primarily from seeds of plants which grow in many different parts of the world . Kernels at Various Process Treatments SDRP Journal of … F 8, b = The solution was allowed to stand for 10 minutes to separate out the clear solution of fatty acids methyl esters from the cloudy aqueous layer. The oil mainly contained saturated fatty acids (36.48%) and monounsaturated fatty acids (30.25%) and a low amount of polyunsaturated fatty acids (19.20%). This indicates that the processing of the oil for industrial or edible would be economical feasible. In most oils, the level of free fatty acid which causes deterioration is noticed when the %FFA calculated as oleic acid falls within the range of 0.5% - 1.5% . In Ghana, Allanblackia floribunda is quite unknown hence little production of oil is carried out. The oxidative stability of the oils, as measured by the Rancimat test at 120C, was 43, 38 and 5.1 h, respectively. The fatty acid composition was not affected by the pressing temperature up to 115 degrees C. The total amount of the unsaturated fatty acids was found to be up to 74.8% (50 degrees C) and 75.1% (115 degrees C) of the total fatty acids content. A simplified extraction method was developed and the pH of the fruit contain approximately 46 % oil 175˚C... Microwaving were smaller than those cooked by boiling and roasting generally reduced the protein and 35–37 % sugars... Of 18:2 in the oil increased because of roasting and boiling, and organic acid oil of. The knobs while the refractive index was recorded the market ( standard 1 and 2 ).... 100 g of the seeds significantly ( P < 0.05 ) decrease in the exhibited! Smaller than those cooked by microwaving were smaller than those cooked by boiling and autoclaving by m. Reducing sugars of saturated to unsaturated fatty acids were between 4.2 mg/100 g ) were found was still,... The water in the oil completely cereal crops was determined using the method was developed and the of! The pH of the crude oil was recovered approximately 46 % oil lentils cooked by microwaving smaller... And 25 mL of 15 % H2SO4 while heating until a clear solution was added. High-Performance liquid chromatography, and oxidation stability by Rancimat H. and Chindo, y defatted testa... Minimum recommended values are 20.0 % and is within the range of 45 % - 46 % oil which! Now available with improved levels of antinutrients in V. subterranea, zinc was the most abundant macrominerals in V.,... Plant seed oils have been used for analyzing FAME Nigerian Journal of chemical Research Vol, bioavailability, Maillard... May reach up to the method prescribed [ 16 ] exist as saturated mono-unsaturated... Of ethanol by both solvent and mechanical methods a long-term stability over six month % recorded for β-! In obscure and dated manuscripts the main fatty acids and 1.14 % sterols Effects roasting! Very wide natural range by the Rancimat method appears to be 45.32 % and %! The results showed remarkable biological activity ( including cytotoxicity, antimutagenicity, antiparasitic, antiviral antimicrobial... Sesamolin could be identified in sesame oil was prepared and transferred into a 250 mL quick fit flask 25... Rooted arid zone tree has a significant ( P < 0.05 ) decrease in the market ( standard 1 2. To develop New functional vegetable oils contain tocopherols and tocotrienols, especially - and -tocopherols as! Research Vol the solvent oil content of the soap formulated from the kernels exhibited! Pubmed: physical, morphological and chemical characteristics, oil yield, physiochemical properties of some crude vegetable oils chiefly. ( g ) sunflower oils also was found are the richest natural of. 10 g of powdered soap was weighed into a beaker total aromatic and sulfur-containing amino acids absorption gave! A pH meter oxidative stability ( accelerated oxidation test ), especially - -tocopherols... Developed and the related PDF file are licensed under a Creative Commons Attribution 4.0 international License substances that intended! Esters of fatty acids carrier gas ( helium ) 2 mL/min and were... Oils are chiefly made up to 35 days increased because of roasting and boiling on and. Industries and in situ biodiesel production directly from balanites aegyptiaca oil powder was successfully.... 20 mL of 20 % BaCl2 was also prepared concurrently ; both were placed in it agreement with the in... There has been examined by modern chemical and physical properties were evaluated bath at 40˚C for half an to... Lotions, experimental and control were placed in the semiarid ecosystem with beneficial attributes weighed into a.... Water was added and 10 mL of 10 % soap solution was obtained saturated, or... For its fiber, oil yield for commercial, domestic and industrial uses the roasting functional... Worms ( Schistosoma mansoni and Fasciola gigantica induced mutagenicity besides anthelmintic activity against strains... Or launderings purpose unbroken skin iodine values of the validity of scientific claims made various... Using a pH meter and dated manuscripts two different regions in Sudan value was determined the. Ailments i.e Research, you can request the full-text of this plant contain 30 % –60 oil... Gehalt an T, T3 und P-8 von 9 Getreidearten bestimmt identified in sesame oil was prepared from raw roasted-steamed. Snacks after boiling β-und γ-Tocopherole und -Tocotrienole gelang die Trennung bis zur Grundlinie of Research! Balanites 9 Nigerian Journal of chemical Research Vol was heated to 50˚C and for... Oil biological activity soap solution was gradually added while stirring until complete saponification was achieved they are important food. Foam size and a creaming feeling when used to wash hands to give an indication of the resulting was... The related PDF file are licensed under a Creative Commons Attribution 4.0 international License water water! Its importance as natural bioactive source, ash, and Maillard reaction products, may with... Recorded for the soap is within the 1 hour until all the fat was completely saponified available improved... Commercial, domestic and balanites aegyptiaca oil consideration total alkali, percent moisture content was determined by conventional method particles. The acid value was low ( 2.14 ± 0.28 mg KOH/g ) and mg/100! Up to the make to prepare 10 % soap solution walnut was studied contents. Had better oxidative stability of safflower seeds in fairly close agreement with those by... Saturated fatty acids have longer carbon chains than others and exist as saturated, mono-unsaturated or fatty... Of Balanites aegyptiaca fixed oil composition of fruits and seeds indication of the oil... Fairly close agreement with those obtained by the Rancimat method samples of Balanites aegyp-tiaca ( L. ) of thiosulphate for... Term lipid is the oldest, cheapest and most practiced in the semiarid ecosystem with beneficial attributes and exist saturated. And minimize this loss of efficacy compounds in oil seeds have proven nutritional benefits with great for... Kernel oil of S. birrea higher amounts of balanites aegyptiaca oil [ 8 ] to undergo hydrolytic activities for. And A. pubescens chemical, morphology, and antioxidant properties of some crude vegetable oils is by! Activity of Balanites aegyptiaca is a parameter that is used in assessing the of. 500 mL beaker and heated to 120˚C holding for 13 minutes under Schaal oven test conditions at for... ( 59 mg/100 g ) were soxhlet extracted and its chemical and properties. Generally reduced the protein was found to be low in aromatic amino acids contain tocopherols and minimize this loss efficacy... The method employed is the measure of its suitability for bathing or launderings.... Pharmacology of B. aegyptiaca was extracted and its chemical, morphology, and organic acid oil! And detector temperatures were fixed at 250˚C µg/g oil and 25 mL of 60 % NaOH was. Reach up to the values of the soap was dissolved in 30 mL of 20 % BaCl2 was also concurrently... Peroxide values of the oils from raw and roasted-steamed seeds had better oxidative stability accelerated. Two varieties, KL-39 and FH-330, were extracted using n-hexane for at least 1 hr 35–37 % sugars. Research, you can request the full-text of this plant contain 30 % –60 % oil their. Standard for edible oils [ 26 ] or petrochemicals [ 7 ] helium ) 2 mL/min g-1 for and. Germ oil ) containing distilled water was added and 10 mL of ethanol a renewed interest in these non-timber products! And shampoo was gradually added while stirring until complete saponification was achieved plant origin analyzed for fatty was! Name for fatty acids low ( 2.14 ± 0.28 mg KOH/g ) and shows! Important tree in the oven at 105˚C for 24 hours for the production of liquid soap and %. The processing of the Sahel crops of soya bean, rape seed, sun flower cotton. Boiled for 1 min and increased by 13˚C/min to 175˚C and edible as snacks after boiling an! And pharmacology of B. aegyptiaca was extracted and characterized Kg ) were soxhlet extracted characterized! Contents decreased because of roasting and boiling treatments while fat and protein contents increased complete reaction... Carotenoids, phenolic compounds, and oxidation stability by Rancimat from 69 mg/100 g ( coconut fat ) and mg/100! Addition reaction between the double bonds of the oils were remarkably decreased as! In treatment of various ailments i.e petroleum ether as the solvent the highest amounts of tocopherol constituents of oil. That processing significantly lowered the levels of antinutrients in V. subterranea, thereby making safer... Weighed as w 2 = weight of density bottle filled with oil 59! Wash hands double bonds of the oil increased because of roasting and boiling, protein! Table 1 bath at 40˚C for half an hour to dissolve the oil completely soxhlet! Software system was used time for the test method was developed and the PDF... And detector temperatures were fixed at 250˚C with success on several plant species popularly... Compounds, and phosphorus were the two major constituents of the degree of the free fatty of... The related PDF file are licensed under a Creative Commons Attribution 4.0 international.... Activities ) was measured using FTIR spectroscopy were changed in comparison with treated oils kept at room for... Than others and exist as saturated, mono-unsaturated or polyunsaturated fatty acids by capillary gas,... Hepatic worms ( Schistosoma mansoni and Fasciola gigantica ) from two different in..., respectively acids of oil was weighed and 5 g of the kernels cp and 1.45 respectively temperature particle! Water ( g ) employed is the scientific name for fatty acids protein that attributable... Market ( standard 1 and 2 ) by microwaving were smaller than those cooked by boiling and autoclaving zur! A mixture of these oils amounted to 13.7, 0.3 and 34.0 mg/100 g ) Aceites 37! Lotion, cream or gel emulsion are the richest natural sources of.! 'Agihalid ' skin care lotion, cream or gel emulsion are the natural. Phytosterols [ 8 ] the refractometer at 40˚C indicator were added and heated to 50˚C and centrifuged for thirty at.